Configuring a Cron TaskThe main configuration file for cron, /etc/crontab, contains the following lines:
SHELL=/bin/bash PATH=/sbin:/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin MAILTO=root HOME=/ # run-parts 01 * * * * root run-parts /etc/cron.hourly 02 4 * * * root run-parts /etc/cron.daily 22 4 * * 0 root run-parts /etc/cron.weekly 42 4 1 * * root run-parts /etc/cron.monthly
The first four lines are variables used to configure the environment in which the cron tasks are run. The value of the SHELL variable tells the system which shell environment to use (in this example the bash shell), and the PATH variable defines the path used to execute commands. The output of the cron tasks are emailed to the username defined with the MAILTO variable. If the MAILTO variable is defined as an empty string (MAILTO=""), email will not be sent (sendmail on ESX is not installed by default). The HOME variable can be used to set the home directory to use when executing commands or scripts.
Each line in the /etc/crontab file has the format:
minute hour day month dayofweek command
- minute — any integer from 0 to 59
- hour — any integer from 0 to 23
- day — any integer from 1 to 31 (must be a valid day if a month is specified)
- month — any integer from 1 to 12 (or the short name of the month such as jan, feb, and so on)
- dayofweek — any integer from 0 to 7 where 0 or 7 represents Sunday (or the short name of the week such as sun, mon, and so on)
- command — the command to execute. The command can either be a command such as ls /proc >> /tmp/proc or the command to execute a custom script that you wrote.
A hyphen (-) between integers specifies a range of integers. For example, 1-4 means the integers 1, 2, 3, and 4.
A list of values separated by commas (,) specifies a list. For example, 3, 4, 6, 8 indicates those four specific integers.
The forward slash (/) can be used to specify step values. The value of an integer can be skipped within a range by following the range with /<integer>. For example, 0-59/2 can be used to define every other minute in the minute field. Step values can also be used with an asterisk. For instance, the value */3 can be used in the month field to run the task every third month.
Any lines that begin with a hash mark (#) are comments and are not processed.
Examples of crontabsAs you can see from the /etc/crontab file, it uses the run-parts script to execute the scripts in the /etc/cron.hourly, /etc/cron.daily, /etc/cron.weekly, and /etc/cron.monthly files on an hourly, daily, weekly, or monthly basis respectively. The files in these directory should be shell scripts.
# record the memory usage of the system every monday # at 3:30AM in the file /tmp/meminfo 30 3 * * mon cat /proc/meminfo >> /tmp/meminfo # run custom script the first day of every month at 4:10AM 10 4 1 * * /root/scripts/backup.sh
If a cron tasks needs to be executed on a schedule other than hourly, daily, weekly, or monthly, it can be added to the /etc/cron.d directory. All files in this directory use the same syntax as /etc/crontab.
The cron daemon checks the etc/crontab file, the etc/cron.d/ directory, and the /var/spool/cron directory every minute for any changes. If any changes are found, they are loaded into memory. Thus, the daemon does not need to be restarted if a crontab file is changed.
Users other than root can configure cron tasks by using the crontab utility. All user-defined crontabs are stored in the /var/spool/cron directory and are executed using the usernames of the users that created them. To create a crontab as a user, login as that user and type the command crontab -e to edit the user's crontab using the editor specified by the VISUAL or EDITOR environment variable. The file uses the same format as /etc/crontab. When the changes to the crontab are saved, the crontab is stored according to username and written to the file /var/spool/cron/username.
To start the cron service, use the command /sbin/service crond start. To stop the service, use the command /sbin/service crond stop. It is recommended that you start the service at boot time.